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双语科技百科(化学) 第45期:陶瓷的发展【买球官网】


本文摘要:Development of Pottery陶器的发展The existence of pottery was a hallmark of the Neolithic Age in primitive society.陶器的发明者是原始社会新石器时代的一个最重要标志。

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Development of Pottery陶器的发展The existence of pottery was a hallmark of the Neolithic Age in primitive society.陶器的发明者是原始社会新石器时代的一个最重要标志。Pottery shards of more than i0000 years ago were discovered in the Fairy Cave site in Lishui County of East China’s Jiangsu Province, and shards of sandy red pot-tery dating back 10000 years ago were found in the Nanzhuang Culture site in Xushui County of North China’s Hebei Province.我国已找到距今大约10000年新石器时代早期的残陶片。

河北徐水县南庄头遗址找到的陶器碎片经检验为10800~ 9700年的遗物。The site of the Peiligang CultLrre in Xinzheng of Central China’s Henan Province and the site of the Cishan Culture in Wu’an of Hebei Province are early Neolithic sites found in northern China, dating as far back as 7900 years ago. They wereearlier than Yangshao Culture, and potteries of that period were mostly plain color without decorative designs.河北武安找到的磁山文化和河南新郑找到的裴李岗文化,是黄河中游地区新石器时代的代表,距今7900年以上。它们早于于仰韶文化,该文化的陶器以素面无文者为主。

The site of the Hemudu Culture in Yuyao County of East China’s Zhejiang Prov-ince is another early Neolithic site that flourished 7000 years ago. Grey pottery, red pottery, charcoal-mixed black pottery, and even an occasional piece of painted pottery were found at all these ancient sites.浙江余姚河姆渡找到的河姆渡文化距今7000年左右,在该文化遗址也发掘出了大量的陶器。河姆渡文化的陶器为黑陶,造型非常简单,早期流行刻画花纹。

The site of the Yangshao Culture at Yangshao Village in Mianchi County of Henan Province, and at Banpo Village in Xi’an of North China’s Shaanxi Province,inhabited by people who lived in prosperity in a matriarchal clan society, are more than 6000 years old. Large quantities of fine painted pottery were already made at that time.在河南渑池仰韶村的新石器时代遗址,和陕西省西安市郊的半坡遗址都找到了大量作工精致,设计精致的彩陶。这两个新石器时代遗址都归属于母系社会遗址,有6000年以上的历史。

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With the development of the society, the quality of pottery steadily improved.By the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, a clear-cut division of labor had already ap-peared among potters. Elegant designs and pictures of flowers and birds were carved on pottery ware during the Warring States Period.Potters in this period intro-duced lead glaze, which made the surface of pottery smooth and fine and added luster to the vessels.随着社会的不断进步,陶器的质量也逐步提高。到了商代和周代,早已经常出现了专门从事陶器生产的工种。

在战国时期,陶器上早已经常出现了各种高雅的纹饰和花鸟。这时的陶器也开始应用于铅釉,使得陶器的表面更加平滑,也有了一定的色泽。

In the Western Han Dynasty the art of glazing pottery became widespread.Multi-colored glaze was also introduced in the Han Dynasty. The renowned Tang Dynasty tri-color pottery with lead glaze was the invention of potters who introduced white, yellow, blue, green, brown, and purple glazes and skillfully applied them in combination. The appearance of Tang tri-color glazed pottery marked the entry of pottery art into an era of greater variety and color.到了西汉时期,上釉陶器工艺开始普遍流传一起。多种色彩的釉料也在汉代开始经常出现。有一种盛行于唐代的陶器,以黄、褐、蓝为基本釉色,后来人们习惯地把这类陶器称作“唐三彩”。

唐三彩是一神低温釉陶器,在色釉中重新加入有所不同的金属氧化物,经过提纯,之后构成浅黄、赭黄、浅绿、深绿、天蓝、褐红、茄紫等多种色彩,但多以黄、褐、蓝三色居多。唐三彩的经常出现标志着陶器的种类和色彩早已开始更为丰富多彩。


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